What is enlightenment? Why does it matter?

According to the NIH, about 20 million adults in the United States alone meditate. Millions more do yoga. Meditation and yoga are now household words. Why have they become so popular?

Meditation and yoga, when done properly, give us a glimpse of our natural state of awareness. This is different from the state of awareness we have during the course of a typical day. Usually, our awareness takes the form of being an individual, being happy, or being frustrated. Meditation goes beyond these states of being to being itself, beyond mental states.

This natural being is what has been labeled "enlightenment" or self-realization.

Enlightenment is associated with many misconceptions:

  1. Enlightenment means the mind doesn't exist anymore. False. The mind still functions in enlightenment. It functions differently because the previous sense of individuality is not there nearly as strongly. The individual "me" is seen as a superimposition on consciousness, rather than as an independently real entity.
  2. Enlightened people don't feel angry or sad. False. Remember that the mind still exists in enlightenment. The mind can feel sad or angry, or any other emotion. However, it won't get bogged down in that emotion because there is no core sense of individuality or self-judgement to anchor it. States of mind will come and go, like clouds passing in the sky. This doesn't mean that we will visibly appreciate all enlightened people exhibiting a range of moods. They may or may not. Their attention may be on the mind or it may not be. There is no single rule on display.
  3. Enlightenment will solve all my problems. False. What enlightenment does is shift the identity of "me" out of the individual. Where does identity go? It doesn't go into anything. It is merely released from the limitation of individuality. If it goes into something, like an expansive, subtle state, recognize that to be a mental state. That too has to be released.
  4. Enlightenment is a mystical experience. False. Enlightenment can seem mysterious from the perspective of the mind. The mind cannot imagine enlightenment, simply because enlightenment is not a state of mind. However, mystical experiences, intuitions, peak experiences, and states of ecstasy by themselves are not enlightenment. These too are passing states of mind. They are neither to be shunned, nor tightly held on to.

So then, what will I get out of enlightenment?

What the mind "gets" from enlightenment is the freedom to be itself without judgement. Over the course of our lives, we have modified our behavior innumerable times to fit the shoulds and should nots of our communities. We have created a dream-like state (often nightmare-like) to live in. We are told that if we do not behave like others and accept what others accept, then we won't fit in, or we'll act irresponsibly. When the walls of individuality fall off the mind, all such controlling ideas and self-judgements fall away. Notice the mind isn't really getting some thing, or even an experience. By dropping all things, the mind abides in freedom.

Who gets enlightened?

There are three answers to this question.

  1. Whoever honestly and diligently investigates their own identity through any form of introspection is on the path of enlightenment. Honesty means you are true to your own quest. You cannot fully accept (or reject) somebody else's words, no matter who they are, until they are true (or false) for you. This means you must be able to investigate any hypothesis you encounter, no matter how outlandish it may seem, using your experience as data. Diligence means you continue with your investigation until all questions either disappear or become irrelevant, and freedom becomes your nature. Honesty and diligence are indispensable.

    The investigation of identity does not have to be highly philosophical. You don't have to inquire "Who am I?" over and over again. You may simply have the insight "This world is like a movie!" or "What a crazy world!" When you dive (introspect) into that subjective experience, you are in fact investigating your identity. Your investigation may or may not feel intellectual. The biggest questions in life, such as Who am I? What is the nature of this world? What happens at birth and death?, are not to be answered by books or concepts, although these can help point the way. Such questions are internal, experiential investigations.
  2. It is also true that some people appear to spontaneously realize their true nature, without much investigation. This is like saying the first snowfall of the winter is a spontaneous occurrence. It is true that at one moment there is no snow, and in the next moment there is snow falling. But it is also true that the entire range of seasons from spring to summer to fall to winter was necessary to create the first snowflake. When we look at enlightenment as an event, it can appear spontaneous. But the subjective unfolding of the mind had been in process long before, unrecognized to the external observer and possibly even to the mind that does not remember previous events.
  3. Many people today say that an individual person does not get enlightened. They say what actually happens is consciousness wakes up to itself. This is imprecise and can confuse someone who is starting to wake up. Neither is it precise to say that everyone is already enlightened.

    Consciousness itself, being infinite, seamless, and dimensionless, has no need to wake up. In fact, we can even say it cannot wake up because it is already awakeness, so to speak. A flower in full bloom cannot bloom. A person with eyes already open cannot open their eyes. Similarly, consciousness can't become more conscious, or enlightened.

    What gets enlightened is the mind. The reason there is so much confusion about this is because when the mind gets enlightened, the first-person sense of individuality in the mind dissolves. Therefore you generally won't see enlightened people saying "I am enlightened" since the sense of "I" is no longer in the mind. The mind is enlightened, yes, but "I," as consciousness, is not. This is the essence of self-realization. 

    Consciousness is not enlightened; it is ever awake. Individual identity is not enlightened; it dissolves. The mind is enlightened, characterized by a shift from a personal mind to an impersonal mind. Therefore the journey of the mind as a subtle, ever-refining, impersonal identity continues with enlightenment.

Doesn't enlightenment blow your mind?

Mystical experiences and surges of insight along the path of enlightenment can and will blow the mind. But none of these are enlightenment by themselves. They are landmarks that one may use when looking back on what has happened to the mind along the way.

What is the "light" of enlightenment?

The light of enlightenment is two-fold.

  1. The light is metaphorical: a lightness of being. Imagine walking around for a year with a backpack full of textbooks strapped to your shoulders. 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, you carry these books. Your back hurts. Your shoulders hurt. You're sore. You're cranky. Further imagine that you don't realize that this tremendous weight is strapped to you. You think it's just a part of you, a part of life that you have no control over. One day, in the midst of your misery, someone walks along and snips the two straps, and the whole bag falls to the ground with a resounding thud. You look down, you see the bag, you feel indescribable relief, and in an instant you recognize the truth behind all that suffering. That amazing, indescribable lightness you feel is akin to the lightness of enlightenment. In enlightenment, the mind drops its accrued self-judgements and misconceptions.
  2. The light is literal. There are two kinds of light in the literal sense: light that is seen (known to science as particle and wave) and light that sees, or is self-effulgent (unknown to science). Consciousness is self-effulgent. It requires nothing else to be conscious. That self-effulgence is what expresses as the mind and world. All our perceptions, indeed everything we know, is known in and as the light of self-effulgent consciousness, even when the mind doesn't recognize it. 

    When first-person individuality dissolves from the mind, identity reverts back to the natural being of consciousness. With this shift, our natural self-effulgence is once more recognized. Self-effulgence then noticeably shines as the world of subjective and objective experiences--mind, body, and world.

When is enlightenment complete?

Consciousness itself never changes. Form always changes. Therefore, enlightenment cannot have a point of completion relative to form because form (the mind) is always refining itself. Completion can only be described as non-dual consciousness, in which there is no second, no first, no other. A more descriptive word for enlightenment might be awakening or enlightening, because they describe the ongoing process of the mind becoming ever more subtle, even as consciousness remains pristine.

Does enlightenment matter?

I am writing this post in the aftermath of a terrible incident in which many lives were lost in Las Vegas. I had thought about writing this post many times before, but never felt a sense of urgency about it. That changed with this incident. Such incidents seem to now be the norm rather than the exception. Despite many tragedies, we as a society have not acted upon the understanding that the world we see is a reflection of our own state of consciousness. We are a part of every problem and every solution. 

There are many solutions to the problem of violence. Raising our self-awareness isn't the only one by a long shot, but it's one powerful step each of us can take that will intensify other creative actions. More importantly, self-awareness can heal the self-judgement that drives people to act in violence. The result of such healing is love without boundaries.

Yes, enlightenment matters.

Have questions? Tweet me @DrAnoopKumar

Anoop Kumar, MD, MM is board certified in Emergency Medicine and holds a Master’s degree in Management with a focus in Health Leadership from McGill University. He practices in the Washington, DC metro area, where he also leads meditation gatherings for clinicians. He is the author of the book Michelangelo’s Medicine: How redefining the human body will transform health and healthcare. Follow him @DrAnoopKumar.